Thermoelectric coolers or thermoelectric modules are devices that are integrated into machines for heat transfer from one side to another. They are primarily used in small cooling instruments and are widely used in mobile coolers. They are semiconductor-based electronic devices that can heat or cool a device or object instantly by creating temperature differentials.
Over the last few years, the concept of converting heat into electric energy is gaining popularity in the market as it requires less maintenance and offers high reliability. Moreover, thermoelectric coolers are compact, lightweight, and offer accurate temperature control. Thus, they are widely used in portable fridges and other devices where high cooling is not required. In addition, thermoelectric coolers are regarded as an ideal solution to address greenhouse emission as they are free of noise, working fluid, mechanical components.
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How thermoelectric coolers work and what are their applications
Thermoelectric coolers, as the name suggests, depend on electricity for cooling. It works on the Peltier effect that states when electric current flows through two separate types of conductors, there is a temperature change when two conductors join. For instance, if you run electric current from a bismuth wire to copper wire, at the junction where wires meet, the temperature will drop. This temperature difference can be multiplied to create a cooling effect that can be strong enough to use in computers and wine fridges.
Generally, the thermoelectric coolers work best in small spaces, especially for electronic devices where there is not enough space for a compressor-based cooler. Moreover, thermoelectric coolers use less electricity than a conventional compressor-based unit of the same size. Thermoelectric coolers offer very fine temperature control; users can control the temperature within 0.1 degrees as well.
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For industrial applications, thermoelectric coolers are used for medical diagnostic systems and laser projectors where heat pumping is required. Over the last couple of years, thermoelectric coolers have found application in wearables to cool human skin up to 8.2 degrees Celcius as human skin is a poor conductor. Thus, thermoelectric coolers are found in mattresses, seat cushions, and thermal pads that are developed for bodily contact.
Commercially, solid-state thermoelectric coolers are used as they have no moving parts and do not break or require fans and lengthy coils. The traditional compressor is a nightmare from an environmental standpoint due to the use of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which are known to harm the ozone layer. On the contrary, thermoelectric coolers possess no harm to the environment than a light bulb.
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